no 12 2007

Kot H. 2007. Breeding birds of farmland in the Szczecin Lowland. Kulon 12: 3-18.

Henryk Kot, Zakład Planowania Przestrzennego i Badań Ekologicznych „EKOS”, 
ul. Traugutta 8, PL-08-110 Siedlce, e-mail:

Abstract. Breeding avifauna of farmland was surveyed near the town of Stargard Szczeciński in the Szczecin Lowland (north-west Poland) in 1980 on six plots (4 plots with a fine-grained structure of crop fields, one lupine field and one maize field). A total of 12 breeding species was recorded, ranging from 4 to 8 on individual plots. The density of birds was 8.3 - 8.9 pairs/10 ha in the fine-grained crops, 2.2 in maize and 3.8 pairs/10 ha in lupine. The most abundant species was the skylark Alauda arvensis, accounting for 54 to 80% of the community, with densities of 1.7-3.0 (lupine and maize) to 4.6-6.1 pairs/10 ha in the fine-grained crops. The second most abundant species was the yellow wagtail Motacilla flava . This species did not occur in lupine, was scarce in maize (0.2 pair/10 ha), and its average density in fine-grained fields was 1.2 pairs/10 ha (14.1% of the community). The dominant species also included the marsh warbler Acrocephalus palustris (0.7 pair/10 ha and 7.8% of the community), inhabiting only rape fields, and the corn bunting Emberiza calandra (0.6 pair/10 ha and 6.5% of the community). Densities of the partridge Perdix perdix and the quail Coturnix coturnix were very low (0.1 pair/10 ha).

Ciach M., Mężyk M. 2007. Sex ratio of non-breeding flocks of the Teal Anas crecca, Mallard Anas platyrhynchos and Pochard Aythya ferina. Kulon 12: 19-30.

Michał Ciach, Michał Mężyk, Zakład Zoologii Leśnej i Łowiectwa, Wydział Leśny, Akademia Rolnicza, al. 29 Listopada 46, PL-31-425 Kraków, e-mail:, e-mail:

Abstract. Sex ratio in non-breeding flocks of Lamellirostres was examined in 1997-2004 on two reservoirs covering a joint area of 24.2 ha, located in the Kraków-Zesławice region, southern Poland. In autumn, the highest numbers of the Teal Anas crecca were observed in the last ten-day period of October, whereas spring migration was prolonged. Over the whole study period, males accounted for 57.1% of the flock (m/f=1.3, n=420 individuals, m – male, f – female). In October to December, the proportion of males varied between 50.8% and 62.7%. The highest proportion of males was noted in January (74.4%). In February to April, the proportion of males gradually declined from 57.1% to 46.7%. Mallards Anas platyrhynchos reached highest numbers early in November, then a part of individuals remained on the reservoirs for wintering. Over the whole period, males contributed to 54.4% of the flock (m/f = 1.2, n = 4346 individuals). Their proportion steadily declined from 59% in September to 51% in December. In January to April, sex ratio approximated one, and varied from 47.5% to 50.7%. In May and June, the number of males increased (67.6% and 60.1%, respectively). During spring migration, Pochards Aythya ferina were most abundant in the second and third ten-day periods of March. Autumn migration was more extended in time, and it terminated when single individuals remained for winter. Over the whole period, males accounted for 67.3% of the flock (m/f = 2.1, n = 407 individuals). In autumn, the proportion of males varied from 29.6% to 84.1%. In March and April, males contributed to 66.7% and 76.9% of the flock, respectively. Differentiation of sex ratio can be based on physiology (higher sensitivity of females to low temperatures) or on behaviour (intraspecific competition, aggression of males). The numerical dominance of males in winter is likely to be an effect of movements of females to wintering areas located further southwards. The proportion of male mallards on the reservoir under study was a little lower than on waters of the Gulf of Gdańsk. This shows that female mallards prefer to winter on waters in milder climate. Presumably, in winter the proportion of males in Poland increases along the line SW-NE. Sex ratio of diving ducks can be influenced by ice cover. Sex-related differences in the duration of diving can limit the access of females to food. Freezing of water in the most shallow bodies force the birds to forage deeper. Moreover, the spreading surface of the ice cover limits the access of females to the bottom underneath. Partial freezing of inland water bodies can account for increasing proportion of males, as compared with their proportion on coastal waters. Changes in numbers of pochards in different months seem to be related with changes in the proportion of males. Seasonal dynamics can thus be a result of differences in the timing of migration of different age and sex groups. 

Chmielewski S., Tabor J., Iwańczuk C. 2007. Changes in the breeding avifauna of the river Pilica in 1974-2004. Kulon 12: 31-42.

Sławomir Chmielewski, ul. Rynek 12, PL-05-640 Mogielnica, e-mail:
Jacek Tabor, Spalski Park Krajobrazowy, ul. Podleśna 2, Spała PL-97-215 Inowłódz, e-mail:
Cezary Iwańczuk, Olszew 30, PL-05-610 Goszczyn

Abstract. In 1974-2004, four counts were conducted using boats during the first ten-day periods of June (1974, 1987-1989, 1998, 2003-2004) on the river Pilica between the dam at Smardzewice and the outlet to Vistula (140 km). Local factors such as overgrowing of the river channel with vegetation, low water levels in the river, overgrowing of the river banks with vegetation and their fastening are likely to be responsible for declines in the Ringed Plover, Charadrius hiaticulus, Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius, Common Tern Sterna hirundo, Little Tern Sternula albifrons, and Sand Martin Riparia riparia. The increasing abundance of vegetation in the river channel attracts birds associated with rushes, such as the Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, Great Reed Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus, Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus, Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus, and probably Marsh Warbler Acrocephalus palustris, the number of which is steadily increasing. The Kingfisher Alcedo atthis population seems to be stable, though it markedly fluctuated over the 30- year period. The Scarlet Grosbeak Carpodacus erythrinus significantly fluctuated, numbers of the Penduline Tit Remiz pendulinus were stable, and the Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos showed a decline. Trends in populations of 11 species on the Pilica (Greylag Goose Anser anser, Goldeneye Bucephala clangula, Goosander Mergus merganser, White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla, Lapwing Vanellus vanellus, Ringed Plover, Stock Dove Columba oenas, Kingfisher, Black Woodpecker Dryocopus martius, House Martin Delichon urbicum, and Dunnock Prunella modularis) were the same as over Poland. 

Kozik R., Cieśluk P. 2007. Results of the inventory of selected breeding birds in the lower river Narew and adjacent water bodies in 2005. Kulon 12: 43-51.

Radosław Kozik, Katedra Ekologii i Zoologii Kręgowców Uniwersytet Gdański, Legionów 9, PL-80-441 Gdańsk, e-mail:
Paweł Cieśluk, Liceum Ogólnokształcące im. Mikołaja Kopernika, ul. Kościuszki 36,
PL-07-300 Ostrów Mazowiecka, e-mail:

Abstract. During 1-5 June 2005, birds were counted from boats along the Łomża-Pułtusk section (140 km) of the lower river Narew. Also sedimentation tanks at the industrial dump in Ostrołęka and gravel pits located at Brzuze and Gnojno were surveyed. A significant decline in the number of the Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos (21-31 pairs, 1.8 pair/10 km) was noted. Their numbers were almost four times higher in 1993 and three times higher in 2001. In 1993 and 2001, numbers of the Kingfisher Alcedo athis were estimated at 33-54 and 33-41 pairs, respectively. In 2005, a total of 14-20 pairs was recorded. Single sites of the kingfisher were found at the gravel pits Brzuze and Gnojno. The remaining 12-18 pairs (1.1 pair/10 km) were observed on the Narew. Numbers of the Sand Martin Riparia riparia were estimated at 3047 burrows in 26 colonies. In recent years, the population has been stable after a deep decline in the 1990s. At the same time, the number of colonies declined by half as compared with that in 2001, whereas the total number of burrows remained almost unchanged. Because of the lack of suitable nesting sites, species such as the Common Tern Sterna hirundo, Little Tern Sternula albifrons, Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula, and Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus were noted as breeding only at the gravel pit Brzuze and the industrial dump near Ostrołęka. 

Gorczewski A., Betleja J., Dobosz R., Hadaś B. T. 2007. Occurrence of the Barn Owl Tyto alba in sacred objects of the Silesian and Opolskie provinces in 1998-2003. Kulon 12: 53-64.

Arkadiusz Gorczewski, ul. Żeromskiego 78/1, 44-119 Gliwice, e-mail:
Jacek Betleja, Muzeum Górnośląskie, pl. Jana III Sobieskiego 2, PL-41-902 Bytom, 
Roland Dobosz, Muzeum Górnośląskie, pl. Jana III Sobieskiego 2, PL-41-902 Bytom, 
Tadeusz B. Hadaś, Muzeum Górnośląskie, pl. Jana III Sobieskiego 2, PL-41-902 Bytom, e-mail:

Abstract. In 1998-2003, 1021 sacred objects were surveyed in the Silesian province, and 347 churches/chapels in the Opolskie province (S Poland), over an area of about 18 thousand km2. The majority (56%) of the churches and chapels were erected before 1945. They were built of brick (92%), and only 106 (8%) were made of wood. Most objects (71%) had towers and were located in rural areas, the others (33%) were in towns or in suburban areas. In 178 objects, the traces of the presence of the Barn Owl were recorded, or credible information on their previous occurrence was obtained. The average density on the area surveyed was 0.27 pairs/100 km2. It has been found that barn owls showed preference for churches built before 1945 and with towers. Church illumination and the presence of Beech Martens did not affect the occurrence of the Barn Owl. The major factor limiting the abundance of the barn owl was the availability of nesting sites the number of which is declining in recent years because of closing entrance holes into sacred objects to prevent their pollution by colonies of Feral Pigeons.

Olszewski A. 2007. Lost species of the breeding avifauna of the Kampinos National Park and its buffer zone. Kulon 12: 73-87.

Adam Olszewski, Kampinoski Park Narodowy, ul. Tetmajera 38, PL- 05-080 Izabelin,

Abstract. Based on the literature data, information from birdwatchers, and own observations, bird species are reviewed that stopped nesting within the present boundaries of the Kampinos National Park (KPN) and its buffer zone over the recent half-century (1956-2006). A total of 180 species nesting in that period in the Kampinos Forest (KPN and its buffer zone) are analysed. Twenty taxa are considered to be lost from the list of breeding species in the Park because no breeding category of any kind was assigned to them for at least six years. The following species stopped breeding in the KPN (chronologically): the stone curlew Burhinus oedicnemus, woodchat shrike Lanius senator, lesser grey shrike Lanius minor, black grouse Tetrao tetrix, black kite Milvus migrans, peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, crested lark Galerida cristata, short-toed eagle Circaetus gallicus, black tern Chlidonias niger, red-necked grebe Podiceps grisegena, great crested grebe Podiceps cristatus, pochard Aythya ferina, black-headed gull Larus ridibundus, common tern Sterna hirundo, hen harrier Circus cyaneus, little bittern Ixobrychus minutus, rook Corvus frugilegus, tufted duck Aythya fuligula, roller Coracias garrulous, and curlew Numenius arquata. Of these species, at least nine are considered to be lost from the whole Kampinos Forest. In the coming years, the following species have a real chance to breed again in the Park: the red-necked grebe, little bittern, pochard, tufted duck, curlew, and rook. Because of a considerable decline, or due to changes in the habitat, such species as the turtle dove Streptopelia turtur, little owl Athene noctua, and lesser spotted eagle Aquila pomarina may be lost. 

Jobda M. 2007. Timing and parameters of mating and reproduction of the Forest Dormouse Dryomys nitedula in the Białowieża Primeval Forest. Kulon 12: 89-92.

Marek Jobda, ul. Bohaterów Powstania Styczniowego 4, PL-05-480 Karczew

Abstract. In 2004 and 2006, counts of breeding birds were conducted on a 21.9-ha plot located in the wetland Całowanie (52o01’N, 21o20’E). Birds were counted before and after removal of 6 ha of willows growing on grasslands since the time when their agricultural management was ceased. It has been found that the number of species declined from 20 in 2004 to 18 in 2006, and the number of pairs decreased from 63 to 46, respectively. Mainly common species nesting and foraging in or under shrubs stopped nesting or declined (14 species), whereas the abundance of birds associated with grasslands increased (8 species). Although most shrubs were cleared, numbers of the red-backed shrike markedly increased (from 3 pairs in 2004 to 6.5 pairs in 2006).

Słupek J., Łukaszewicz M., Kuropieska R. 2007. OWLS STRIGIFORMES IN THE JEDLNIA-LETNISKO REGION. Kulon 12: 93-96.

Jacek Słupek, Miejska Pracownia Urbanistyczna, ul. Żeromskiego 54, PL-26-600 Radom, e-mail:
Marcin Łukaszewicz, Studenckie Koło Naukowe Ornitologów, Akademia Podlaska, ul. Prusa 12, PL-08-110 Siedlce, e-mail:
Rafał Kuropieska, Studenckie Koło Naukowe Ornitologów, Akademia Podlaska, ul. Prusa 12, PL-08-110 Siedlce, e-mail:

Abstract. In 2005-2006, species composition and numbers of owls Strigiformes were examined in the region of Jedlnia-Letnisko, central Poland. The study area covered 31.5 km2, including agricultural landscape (18.05 km2) and two fragments of a forest complex, covering a joint area of 13.45 km2. Nesting of three species was recorded: the Tawny Owl Strix aluco, Long-eared Owl Asio otus, and Barn Owl Tyto alba. In the agricultural landscape, all the three species occurred, and in the forest only the Tawny Owl. Tawny owls were the most abundant species. Their density in the forest was 11.1 p/10 km2. It was comparable to that in old stands of the Świętokrzyski National Park (9.4-10.5 p/10 km2) and twice as high as in the Rozwadzka Forest (5.7 p/10 km2) and the Romnicka Forest (6.0-6.7 p/10 km2). In the agricultural landscape, four sites of the Long-eared Owl were found (2.2 p/10 km2), and the density of this species was comparable to those in other areas of the agricultural landscape of Mazovia (1.6 p/10 km2 on the average). Also one pair of the Barn Owl was recorded.

Bukaciński D., Buczyński A., Różycki A., Urbanek A. 2007. THE AVOCET RECURVIROSTRA AVOSETTA - A SPECIES NESTING ON THE MIDDLE VISTULA RIVER. Kulon 12: 97-98.

Dariusz Bukaciński, Arkadiusz Buczyński, Andrzej Różycki i Agata Urbanek. Centrum Badań Ekologicznych PAN, Dziekanów Leśny, ul. M. Konopnickiej 1, PL-05-092 Łomianki

Abstract. On 25 May 2007, a nest of the Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta with four eggs was found on an islet located on the middle Vistula at a height of the villages Łoje and Prażmów (51o33’N, 21o44’ E). Four nestlings hatched in mid-June, and they were ringed. Probably only one survived until flying age. This was the sixth nesting of the Avocet recorded in Poland, and the second on the middle Vistula.


Grzegorz Skubera, ul. Krasickiego 7, PL-28-200 Staszów, e-mail:

Abstract. A female Starling Sturnus vulgaris raising chicks in pair with a normal male had an anomalous bill, both parts of it being elongated and crossed at the tip. Nestlings two weeks old (5 nestlings) did not show this anomaly. A genetic defect was likely to be responsible for this anomaly. Nesting took place in a nest box at Staszów (southern Poland) during April-May 2007.

. Kulon 12: 99-

Piotr Szczypiński, ul. Batalionów Chłopskich 26, PL-06-500 Mława, e-mail:

Abstract. On 13-16 April, 2005, nesting of the Collard Turtle Dove on a television aerial  was observed at the village of Narzym (53o11’N, 20o15’ E ). The fate of the nest is unknown. 

. Kulon 12: 100-

Maciej Rębiś, ul. Kopernika 14/6, PL-26-900 Kozienice

Abstract. On 24 June 2007, a brood of two nestlings of the Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata, about 10-12 days old, was found in one of the nests in a colony of the House Martin Delichon urbicum in the town of Kozienice (central Poland). The house martin was sitting on the nest with flycatchers, and removed faeces from the nest. The House Martin leaned out of the nest together with the young house martins even when the nestlings were fed by adult flycatchers who did not show aggression against the House Martin. During the next visit, on 27 June, I saw only the house martin on the nest, but not the young flycatchers. Presumably, the Spotted Flycatchers successfully fledged.


Michał Ciach, Zakład Zoologii Leśnej i Łowiectwa, Wydział Leśny Akademii Rolniczej w Krakowie, al. 29 Listopada 46, PL-31-425 Kraków, e-mail:

Abstract. On 13 September 2006, an attack of the Common Frog Rana temporaria upon the Adder Vipera berus was observed in the nature reserve “Przełom Białki pod Krempachami” (49°25' N, 20°07' E). Half-swallowed and wriggling adder protruded from the mouth of the frog. The body length of the frog was about 7 cm and that of the adder about 16 cm. Both these species are widely spread and common vertebrates throughout Poland. The basic food of the common frog consists of beetles, dipterans, and snails, occasionally of young Lizards Lacerta vivipara. But no hunting for adders was described as yet. Hunting for small snakes was noted in the Laughing Frog Rana ridibunda and Green Frog Rana esculenta.

Łukaszewicz M., Kozik R. 2007. REPORT ON THE ORNITHOLOGICAL CAMP PAWŁOWICE 2004-2006. Kulon 12: 123-127.

Marcin Łukaszewicz, Studenckie Koło Naukowe Ornitologów, Instytut Biologii, Akademia Podlaska, ul. Prusa 12, PL-08-110 Siedlce, e-mail:
Radosław Kozik, Katedra Ekologii i Zoologii Kręgowców, Uniwersytet Gdański, ul. Legionów 9,
PL-80-441 Gdańsk, e-mail:

Abstract. In 2004-2006, the Ornithological Scientific Association of Students at the University of Podlasie in Siedlce and the Research Group of Waterbirds „Kuling” organised a camp for bird ringing on the middle Vistula river at Pawłowice (51o36’N, 21o40’E). The work was continued from 1 July until 31 August. Tunnel traps and mist nets were used for catching birds. During the three seasons, 2568 birds of 77 species were ringed, including 1135 waders representing 20 species. The waders were predominated by the Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos, Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola, and Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago. Ringing recoveries were reported for the Common Sandpiper (Poland) and the Kingfisher (Hungary). One of the birds captured was ringed abroad (Germany). Most abundant passerines were the White Wagtail Motacilla alba and the Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava.