vol 3 no 2. 1998

Dombrowski A. 1998. Water birds on fish ponds of  Południowopodlaska Lowland during autumn migration. Kulon 3: 123-150

Andrzej Dombrowski, ul. Świerkowa 18, PL-08-110 Siedlce, adomb@tlen.pl 

Abstract. In 1975 (November), 1976-1977 (October-November) and 1979 (October) on selected ponds of Południowopodlaska Lowland and in adjacent areas autumn observations on selected migrating birds were made. The research included 37 pond complexes (3057 ha) from 69 present in the macroregion. Of 80 controls 37 were made in October and 43 in November. In October and November 4113 ha and 3121 ha of pond area was investigated, respectively. The ponds were divided into three size-classes: A (10-50 ha), B (51-100 ha) and C (>100 ha). Forty eight bird species were recorded altogether; 43 in October and 26 in November. The density of the community was much higher in October than in November. The frequency of records in October was much higher for majority of regularly observed species. The mean frequency for 11 the most numerous species was 57.2% in October and 25% in November. The percentage of particular species in both months was: A. platyrhynchos (47.5%), F. atra (17.6%), V. vanellus (13.2%), L. ridibundus (9.5%) and A. crecca (5.2%). On the base of investigated ponds (79.5% of all pond area), theoretical numbers of particular species for all ponds were calculated. In October the majority of species were found on the largest pond complexes while in November the differences between the three size-pond-classes were much lower. At least 74% of individuals of A. crecca, A. fuligula, L. ridibundus, V. vanellus and G. gallinago and 60% of A. platyrhynchos and P. cristatus were found on large ponds. C. olor and A. ferina did not show such distinctive preferences. All species, except A. fuligula and P. cristatus, reached higher densities in October. A. crecca preferred large and medium ponds in October while in November the tendency reversed. In both months the densities of A. fuligula was the highest on large ponds while the most numerous species (A. platyrhynchos, F. atra) and P. cristatus showed similar densities on all pond classes. C. olor and A. ferina showed the highest densities on small pond complexes. The most numerous were swimming birds. The most numerous feeding group was formed of phytophages, benthophages and entomophages. The numbers and domination structure of bird fauna of ponds of Południowopodlaska Lowland were similar to those on fish ponds of Pradolina Bzury and lakes of Gnieźnieńskie Lakeland. The lakes of Mrągowskie Lakeland and Lubuskie Lakeland differed distinctly. The lakes of Krzywińskie Lakeland showed intermediate tendency. In comparison with lakes, the contribution of benthophages and ichthyophages on ponds was much lower while the contribution of phytophages and entomophages was much higher. The differences resulted from the fact that the ponds were emptied of water during autumn migrations when bottom sediments were exposed - similarly to large muddy beaches of Gnieźnieńskie Lakeland. Additionally, the lakes were relatively shallow - similarly to the studied ponds. 


Andrzej Dombrowski, ul. Świerkowa 18, PL-08-110 Siedlce, adomb@tlen.pl 

Abstract. In 1977-1978, 1980, 1984-1986 the qualitative and quantitative studies of breeding bird communities in city parks of Siedlce (E Poland) were carried out using a combined territory mapping method. Three study plots were distinguished, depending on their vegetation structure and surroundings: Park Siedlecki Główny (the Main Siedlce Park) (PSG - 15 ha), Park Siedlecki Dziki (the Wild Siedlce Park) (PSD - 3.8 ha) and Park Siedlecki Nowy (the New Siedlce Park) (PSN - 3.2 ha). Forty two bird species were recorded altogether. The fauna of PSG was the most diverse (41 species), ranging from 28 to 32 in particular years. In PSD 25 species were found (from 20 to 22 in particular years). In PSN the species number was the lowest: 17 (12 to 13). The densities in 1986 were: 57.5 p/10 ha in PSN, 175.5 p/10 ha in PSD and 71.7 p/10 ha in PSG. In all studied parks the cavity nesters were dominating, ranging from 56.6% to 60.3% of all bird community. In comparison with other parks, both in eastern and western parts of Poland, the species diversity in PSG was relatively high due to very well preserved and diverse flora. The densities of bird communities in W Poland were much higher than in Siedlce, while in eastern part of the country (except for Puławy) the densities were lower - as the result of various vegetation structure, floristic diversity and degree of urbanisation of majority bird species. The list of dominating species in most compared parks was similar. In PSG the species list was similar to majority of parks analysed while the densities were similar only in 3 parks in eastern and 1 park in western Poland. The differences resulted from much higher (in comparison with PSG) densities of woodpigeon, blackbird, collared dove and house sparrow. From 1969 to 1986 in parks of Siedlce the changes in species composition and densities were recorded. In PSN the increase of species number was the most distinctive (from 5 to 13) and the breeding community there seems still the most dynamic. In 1969-1980 the number of communities increased. In 1980-1986 the numbers of many species substantially lowered which seems the result of the processes outside the studied area. The tendencies n bird fauna changes in Siedlce parks are similar to those observed in other city areas of Poland and are the result of urbanisation during the last thirty years. 

Kulon 3: 183-193

Grzegorz Lesiński, Zakład Ekologii Kręgowców Instytut Ekologii PAN, Dziekanów Leśny k. Warszawy, PL-05-092 Łomianki

Abstract. The study on the magpie Pica pica density in built-up areas was carried out in 1983-1998 and led to conclusion that at the begining of 80s the urban population of this species showed the high increase in numbers in Warsaw (Central Poland). Rapid increase was noted earlier in suburbs than in city outskirts. Density of suburban population reached the mean value - 3.4 pairs/10 ha at the begining of 80s (locally about 6 pairs/10 ha). In 90s the population showed stabilization, slight increase or decrease. On the contrary, the magpies inhabiting built-up area of the city outskirts were not numerous in 80s (0.4-0.7 pairs/10 ha) and their density rapidly increased in 90s (2.6-5.7 pairs/10 ha). The rate of increase was very high - 10 times during 13 years, similar not observed in other European cities. At present Warsaw is inhabited by very strong urban population of magpie. In the study area many aggressive meetings, sometimes up to 6-8 individuals, were observed.
Magpie nests were located usually higher in the city than in suburban built-up area. The height of nest location also depended on the human activity (higher on lots inhabited by people). The lots without people and coniferous trees or shrubs were preferred for nesting. The plasticity of magpie nest site selection was also expressed in attempts of using anthropogenic elements. Anthropogenic food played a significant role in foraging of this species in built-up areas (up to 26% of cases). Probably it reduced magpie predation on small bird broods (less than 1% of foraging cases) (translated by G. Lesiński).

Kasprzykowski Z., Goławski A. POPULATION OF WHITE STORK Ciconia ciconia IN THE AREA OF THE "PODLASKI PRZEŁOM BUGU" IN 1984-1985 AND 1994. Kulon 3: 195-203

Zbigniew Kasprzykowski, Katedra Ekologii i Ochrony Środowiska WSR-P, ul. Prusa 12, PL-08-110 Siedlce, zbykas@ap.siedlce.pl 

Abstract. The nests of white stork Ciconia ciconia were counted in the Podlaski Przełom Bugu Region (420.2 km2, CE Poland) in 1984-85 and 1994. During the study period the number of taken nests increased from 163 in 1984-85 to 181 in 1994 and the densities increased from 38.8 to 43.0 pairs/10 km2. The biggest changes in numbers took place in nests located on the roofs (decrease from 64.1 to 43.6%) and on pylons (increase from 23.1 to 38.8%). The number of nests located in trees in villages increased by 8.3%. The tendencies observed in the studied region were compatible to those observed in Poland in 1984-1995. 

Dombrowski A., Hordowski J., Kasprzykowski Z., Goławski A., Rzępała M., Chmielewski S. 1998. ON CHANGES IN NUMBERS OF CORN CRAKE Crex crex 
Kulon 3: 205-207

Andrzej Dombrowski, ul. Świerkowa 18, PL-08-110 Siedlce, adomb@tlen.pl 

Abstract. On three research plots in E Poland the changes in numbers of corn crake were investigated. In the upper flow of Liwiec river (Siedlce province) between 1982 and 1994-1995 the numbers of species decreased. But in 1998 the numbers increased distinctively. Between 1984 and 1997 near Przemyśl (Przemyśl province) the numbers were constantly decreasing while in Bug river valley (Ostrołęka province) the numbers were stable. During the study period no important changes in vegetation structure were observed. In 1994-1998 the meadows were very wet due to intense rainfall in May and June. 

Ciach M., Rębiś M. 1998. THE OBSERVATIONS OF PIGMY CORMORANT Phalacrocorax pygmeus IN MAZOWIECKA LOWLAND. Kulon 3: 207-208

Michał Ciach, ul. Głowackiego 39/43/40, PL-97-200 Tomaszów Mazowiecki, mciach@ar.krakow.pl 

Abstract. During 1996 the pigmy cormorant was recorded in three localities: from 17 March to 5 April 1996 near Smardzewice (C Poland) on Pilica river below Sulejowska dam, on August 20th 1996 on Pilica river, about 25 km away from the previous observation and on October 12th 1996 on middle flow of Vistula river. The winter observations prove the successful overwintering of species in Poland. 

Chmielewski S., Iwańczuk C. 1998. THE NESTING OF COMMON GULL Larus canus ON THE PILICA RIVER. Kulon 3: 209-210

Sławomir Chmielewski, ul. Rynek 12, PL-05-640 Mogielnica, sch6@wp.pl 

Abstract. On June 6th 1998 the nest of common gull comprising 3 eggs was found on an island on the Pilica river near Wyśmierzyce (C Poland). It is the first record of the species to nest on the Pilica river.

Ciach M., Furmanek M. 1998. RECORDS OF LITTLE OWL Glaucidium passerinum ON MAZOWIECKA LOWLAND. Kulon 3: 210-211

Michał Ciach, ul. Głowackiego 39/43/40, PL-97-200 Tomaszów Mazowiecki, mciach@ar.krakow.pl 

Abstract. After 20 years from previous observation little owl was again recorded on August 8th 1995 and October 11th 1996 in Poręba near Smardzewice (Central Poland). Both records have been accepted by the Faunistic Commission of the Polish Zoological Society. 

Górski P., Miłkowski M. 1998. NEW LOCALITIES OF Tetrops starkii Chevrolat 
(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) IN POLAND.
Kulon 3: 213-214

Paweł Górski, ul.Słodowiec 9/164, PL-01-708 Warszawa

Abstract. On June 2nd 1996 the specimen of Tetrops starkii Chevrolat was found in Warsaw (UTM DC 99) on a buss screen. On April 6-7th 1997 two specimens were hatched from eggs collected in Radom (UTM EB 09) on a twig of Fraxinus excelsior L. Both records are new for Mazowiecka Lowland and Małopolska Upland, respectively.

Polak M., Szczepaniak W., Zięcik P., 1998. THE REPORT FROM BIRD RINGING ON PONDS NEAR GÓRKI IN 1997-1998. Kulon 3: 215-217

Włodzimierz Szczepaniak, Obóz Naukowy - Górki, ul. Orkana 3/69, PL-25-548 Kielce, szczepan@swietokrzyskipn.org.pl 

Abstract. The birds were ringed on ponds near Górki (50020’N, 20045’E) from the 2nd decade of July to the 2nd decade of September 1997-1998 by the members of Radomsko-Kieleckie Nature Society. The nets (2.5x7 m and 2.5x10 m) were used a catching method. In 1997 and 1998 fourteen and twenty nets were used, respectively. 3606 birds representing 45 species were ringed, amongst them reed warbler ringed in Spain and sedge warbler ringed in Lithuania.