vol 7 no 1-2. 2002

Topolski D. 2002. Breeding avifauna of nature reserves in the Spalski Landscape Park. Kulon 7: 3-22. 

Dawid Topolski, Armii Krajowej 18/47, PL-94-046 Łódź

Abstract. The study was conducted in 1998 and 2000 in five nature reserves located in the Spalski Landscape Park: Spała, Konewka, Żądłowice, Sługocice, and Jeleń. The nature reserve Spała covers an area of 57.52 ha. This is a forest reserve established in 1958 to protect a natural deciduous forest with oaks, pines, and firs at the boundary of their geographical range. The forest reserve Konewka (99.91 ha) was established in 1978 to protect a natural fragment of an open-canopy oak forest. The forest reserve Żądłowice (138.79 ha) was established in 1968 to protect a rare, diverse system of alternate alder swamps and pine forests, depending on water regime. The forest reserve Jeleń (47.19 ha) was established in 1976 to protect a natural fragment of a multispecies stand with firs at the northern boundary of their range. The floristic reserve Sługocice, established in 1984, occupies a small area of 8.57 ha, and it protects a site of Dentaria enneaphyllos. The field work was performed from late March through June. A combined  version of the mapping method was used to assess the species composition and abundance of the breeding avifauna in Spała and Konewka reserves. The study plots in both these reserves covered 16 ha each. In 1998, birds were counted in the reserve Konewka, where 9 censuses were conducted during the day and two in the evening on plot KON. In 2000, the same counts were made in reserve Spała on plot SPA - 8 censuses during the day and 2 in the evening. Counts were made at 7-10-day intervals for a relatively long time averaging 2.5 hours per 10 ha. In the other reserves, Żądłowice, Jeleń, and Sługocice, 6 daily and 1 nocturnal counts were performed in the breeding seasons of 1998 and 2000. A total of 57 species of breeding birds were recorded from all the five reserves jointly. Among rare species, the following deserve special attention: Ciconia nigra, Columba oenas, Dendrocopos medius, Picus canus, Regulus ignicapillus, Ficedula albicollis, and Ficedula parva. The highest number of species was noted in the reserve Spała (46) and the lowest (25) in the reserve Sługocice. The total density of bird communities in Spała and Konewka was relatively high (88.3 pairs/10 ha and 75.7 pairs/10 ha, respectively) and comparable to the mean calculated for all bird communities inhabiting old oak forests in Poland. The proportion of dominant species exceeded 50% on the study plots. The group of dominants comprised Fringilla coelebs, Sturnus vulgaris, Parus major, Parus caeruleus, Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Erithacus rubecula, Ficedula hypoleuca, and Sylvia atricapilla. On plots SPA and KON, hole nesting birds were most abundant and accounted for the highest percentage of all breeding groups. High values of H' and J' are indicative of a high species diversity and evenness. High values of QS, PZ, and Re indices indicate that bird communities in Spała and Konewka were similar to those occurring in other oak-hornbeam and oak forests in Poland.

Wilniewczyc P.  2002. Results of  the breeding bird counts in the Świętokrzyski National Park by line-transect method. Kulon 7:  23-32. 

Piotr Wilniewczyc, Paderewskiego 15/3, PL-25-017 Kielce, pwi43@wp.pl 

Abstract. In 1996 and 2000, breeding birds were censused along three line-transects of a total length of 3905 m in the Świętokrzyski National Park. The transects were established in the most typical habitats of this park. One of them, Święty Krzyż, was in a strict nature reserve, and the other two were in a new fragment, included to the Park  in 1996, called  Dolina Wilkowska and Bukowa Góra. In total, 43 breeding species with a high mean density of 80.4 pairs/km2 were recorded from the three transects. Extremely high densities and proportions in the total community were found for chaffinch, robin, and blackcap. Moreover, coal tit, goldcrest, and chiffchaff dominated on at least one transect. Fairly high densities for thisarea were found for marsh tit and tree creeper. Rare breeding species comprised stock dove, firecrest, red-breasted flycatcher, nutcracker, and crossbill.

Kasprzykowski Z. 2002. Numbers of selected species of water birds associated with the lower Narew River in 2001. Kulon 7: 33-39. 

Zbigniew Kasprzykowski, Katedra Ekologii i Ochrony Środowiska AP, Prusa 12, PL-08-110 Siedlce, zbykas@ap.siedlce.pl

Abstract. To determine changes in numbers of selected water birds, canoeing on the Narew was organized during 7-11 June 2001 between Łomża and Pułtusk. A clear decrease in numbers of breeding pairs was found in little ringed plover, little tern, common tern, and common sandpiper. Over the entire study period (1973-2001), large fluctuations in numbers of these species were observed. Sand martins showed the largest decrease in numbers. Stone curlew probably stopped nesting. Kingfisher and goosander maintain stable populations.

Wilniewczyc P., Polak M. 2002. Avifauna of the Belnianka river valley near Daleszyce, Świętokrzyskie province, over wintering and migration periods during 1995-1996. Kulon 7: 41-72

Piotr Wilniewczyc, Paderewskiego 15/3, PL-25-017 Kielce, pwi43@wp.pl

Abstract. Species composition and abundance of all birds were recorded during 33 regular counts along a 14-km section of the Belnianka river near Daleszyce (Świętokrzyskie province) during 7 September 1995-21 April 1996. An analysis of flocking  was performed for selected species. In total, 53913 individuals representing 100 species were noted. The highest percentage contribution was observed for siskin Carduelis spinus, chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, fieldfare Turdus pilaris, and starling Sturnus vulgaris. Mallard Anas platyrhynchos, fieldfare, great tit Parus major, blue tit Parus caeruleus, magpie Pica pica, siskin, and yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella had 100% frequency. The wintering of an eastern buzzard Buteo buteo vulpinus was recorded, which is rare in Europe. In the discussion, bird assemblages of Belnianka, Pilica, and Oder river valleys are compared. The present results are also compared with those obtained in the Świętokrzyskie Mountains during the 1940s. The importance of the valley as a site of abundant  wintering of siskins is emphasized, and also the value of the Belnianka valley as an important "ecological corridor" for many migratory and nomadic birds.

Goławski A., Sachanowicz K., Rzępała M., Kot H., Tabor A. 2002. Non-breeding avifauna of fishponds in Siedlce during 1971-2000. Kulon 7: 73-102. 

Artur Goławski, Katedra Zoologii AP, Prusa 12, PL-08-110 Siedlce, artgo1@ap.siedlce.pl

Abstract. This paper represents a synthesis of the occurrence of non-breeding waterfowl on fishponds in Siedlce during 1971-2000 (1058 surveys). The ponds (203 ha) adjoin the administrative boundaries of Siedlce, and are surrounded mainly by crop fields and meadows. The surface area of these ponds ranged between 1 and 76 ha, and the depth did not exceed 2m. The ponds were progressively covered with cattail and reed, and this process was intensified in the 1990s. The open water accounted for 62.3% of the pond surface in 1973-1975, whereas for only 34.8% in 1998. The paper characterizes the occurrence of birds in the study period, changes in their numbers, and also their occurrence in the annual cycle, using the 1990 survey as an example. In total, 118 species of water birds were recorded, including a few rarely noted in Poland or inland, such as glossy ibis, snow goose, ruddy shelduck, black-winged stilt, terek sandpiper, and arctic tern. During 1971-2000, an increaser was observed in numbers of cormorant, mute swan, great white egret, white-tailed eagle, common gull, herring gull/yellow-legged gull, white-winged black tern, and whiskered tern. In the 1990s, migrating whooper swan and Bewick`s swan appeared for the first time. The abundance of ospreys did not change. Numbers of golden plover, grey plover, dunlin, and little gull decreased. Ferruginous duck was seen on ponds only by 1992. After 1992, bearded titmouse occurred regularly. Most of the observed trends of changes in numbers of selected species were confirmed by observations from other, similar habitats in Poland.

Furmanek M. 2002. Abundance of a breeding population of the great grey shrike Lanius excubitor in northern part of the Lipsko administrative district (province of Mazowsze). Kulon 7: 103-110

Michał Furmanek, Poręba 70, PL-27-300 Lipsko, mifur@interia.pl

Abstract. In 2000, 42-46 breeding pairs of the great grey shrike were noted on an area of 406 km2 in northern part of the Lipsko administrative district called powiat (province of Mazowsze). This gives a density of 10.0-11.0 pairs/100 km2 or 1.1 pairs/10 km2, ranking  this area among the most densely populated by this species in Poland. Higher values for large areas have so far been noted only in two areas of Silesia, in the Biebrza valley, and near Siedlce. The distribution of breeding sites was rather uneven. The highest densities were noted in the agricultural landscape near Solec on the Vistula river (11 km2, 6.4-7.3 pairs/10 km2) and in the Iłżanka valley (45 km2, 2.7-3.1 pairs/10 km2). The density recorded near Solec on the Vistula is the highest known from areas of more than 10 km2 in Poland. In the study area, there were two large stretches (35 and 25 km2) with no breeding great grey shrikes discovered. Also in the areas located south of the study area, this species was sparse although suitable breeding sites were numerous. The analysis of the material collected shows that wasteland play an important part in the selection of breeding territories in this species. Although its total proportion in the agricultural landscape was small, wasteland was  within almost all  shrike territories, and in most territories its proportion was large. The highest numbers of birds were noted in areas with the highest proportion of wasteland (near Solec on Vistula and in Iłżanka valley). The proportion of wetland was relatively low compared with their proportion in the agricultural landscape. Great grey shrikes avoided moist meadows and peatland, also land with a high proportion of forest. However, most territories comprised young pine forests, or small pine woods and groups of pines. Three nests located in such places and the behaviour of birds in many other places show that great grey shrikes often build nests in pines.

Misiuna Ł. 2002.  Observation of an Alpine accentor Prunella collaris near Kielce. Kulon 7: 111-112.  

Łukasz Misiuna, Os. Na Stoku 9/15, PL-25-408 Kielce, nizinny@interia.pl 

Abstract. On 10 April 1993, an adult Alpine accentor was observed near the town of Kielce (50052'N, 20039'E).

Blicharski M. 2002. Site of abundant occurrence of the natter jack toad Bufo calamita near Warsaw. Kulon 7: 113-115

Marek Blicharski, Czerwonych Beretów 2/10, PL-00-910 Warszawa

Abstract. In 1997-1998, a large breeding aggregation of 92 individuals of the natter jack toad (Bufo calamita) and 15 individuals of green toads B. viridis  was found in a sand-pit located within a military camp in Rembertowsko-Okuniewskie Forests (central Poland, UTM EC 19).  Also hybrids between these two species were observed. The coloration of the toads considered to be hybrids was very similar to that of green toads. The bright-clayey-coloured skin had fairly numerous, contrasting, roundish and oblong dark-green spots. Against this background, a narrow light-yellow line was running along the backbone line. In some individuals it was distinctive over the whole length, while in others it was thin, hardly visible, and interrupted. Most toads characterized by this coloration had a single row of metatarsal tubercles, but some individuals had more or less distinct two rows of callus, making them similar to green toads. Hybrids also emitted distinct mating calls, comprising traits of the calls of both the natter jack toad and the green toad. Based on many observations in the last decade in Rembertowsko-Okuniewskie Forests, it has been found that the most abundant species comprise Rana arvalis, R. temporaria, R. lessonae, and Bufo bufo. Also Bombina bombina, Pelobates fuscus, and Triturus vulgaris were abundant. Less abundant were Hyla arborea, Bufo viridis, B. calamita, and Triturus cristatus. Also Rana esculenta and R. ridibunda were observed in this area.

Chmielewski S., Słupek J. 2002. Report about a scientific-educational camp in the Świętokrzyski National Park. Kulon 7: 117-120

Sławomir Chmielewski, Rynek 12, PL-05-640 Mogielnica, sch6@wp.pl

Abstract. During 1-15 July 1991, the participants of a scientific-educational camp made an inventory of avifauna in the Świętokrzyski National Park (50o53'N, 21o00'E) and in some parts of its buffer zone. A total of 84 species were noted. The most important findings include the confirmation of the occurrence of some already known species and discovery of new species such as black stork (a nest), honey buzzard (1 pair), hazel hen, Ural owl, white-backed woodpecker, firecrest, collard flycatcher, and nutcracker.